The perils of faking it. Moreover, the study of attitudes is critical to understanding the motivation and decision strategies employed by consumers. Methods of ethics (7th ed.). The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) and Celebrity Endorsements. You may opt-out by. Opinions expressed by Forbes Contributors are their own. These 3 variables are dynamic and inter dependent. Marketing spans many disciplines including mathematics, and psychology. Changing beliefs is the most difficult of the three. It has also been applied to various other business and economic situations.In 1940, a mechanical engineer named Joseph Juran derived ABC Analysis from Pareto Principle wherein he sought to segregate ‘Criti… Depending on the level of involvement and motivation, the consumer will follow one of two possible routes. The book offers both. Attitudes and opinions. In this scenario, the consumer is influenced to purchase based entirely on their feeling regarding a particular product or service. There are lots of social media books on the market, but I'd never found one that delivered a strategic and practical approach. Value-expressive versus utilitarian advertising appeals: when and why to use each appeal. The three-step methodology - dubbed the ABC approach - is designed to help reduce the dark arts nature of social media strategy. Some of the questions I ask are: "Who is your audience?". (2010). Imagine you walk into a room where two of your friends are laughing together. ●   C - campaigns. You can … [Electronic version]. Advertising targeted to consumers with value-expressive attitudes will typically include product symbolism and an image strategy. This base knowledge is usually objective and without any emotional element. The hierarchy of effects is a concept used to distinguish between the involvement levels or motivation an individual might have toward the attitude object. For example, applying marketing personas can help develop more relevant digital communications as shown by these alternative tactical email customer segmentation approaches. If one changes, the other has to change. In the current context, affect represents the emotion or opinion about a product or service. This means that the wa… The central route is when the consumer is highly involved in every aspect of the purchase. (1991). The consumer establishes feeling about a product or service after the purchase. The combination of beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors influence how a consumer reacts to a product or service. Dr. Lars Perner (2010) defines consumer attitude simply as a composite of a consumer’s beliefs, feelings, and behavioral intentions toward some object within the context of marketing. The consumer will then establish feelings regarding the attitude object. This is where you build on the bedrock of your brand presence. Altering the price or positioning of a product typically accomplishes changing behavior. I interviewed directors, marketers and social media experts, to help me create case studies and practical advice that can be applied across multiple sectors. Marketing has changed and evolved since we were last in school. It reminds us how digital channels offer ne… Social Forces, 15(4), 479-482. (Document ID: 1373518421). "How do they engage on social channels?". Activity Dictionary: A list of particular activities that are utilized in activity-based costing (ABC) analysis. Three attitude change strategies include: changing affect, changing behavior, and changing beliefs (Perner, 2010). The ABE Approach To Content Marketing Twenty years ago, Alec Baldwin delivered one of the most powerful scenes in movie history when he told … This method was developed in the United States. Cognitive refers to the beliefs a consumer has about an attitude object. Math plays an important role is predicting consumer behavior. ABC analysis can also be performed for the customer or client base to understand the market and strategize your business plans. An attitude satisfies a personal motive—and at the same time, affects the shopping and buying habits of consumers. Affect is the feeling an individual has regarding an object. This is primarily the 'pull' of marketing - your inbound social activity attracting consumers to your brand and keeping their attention on you. Implementationand practice shows how Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning apply to digital marketing strategy. ●   A- audience. Utilitarian advertisements deliver a message regarding the benefits of using a product or service. However, the first step is to decide on the ABC priority ratio for your overall content mix. The ELM suggests that consumers will scrutinize claims more in important situations than in unimportant ones. A small manufacturer might keep close track of the high-value Category A components going into its products. In the current context, affect represents the emotion or opinion about a product or service. The feelings—or affect—are followed by the individual’s behavior. It was vital that the university’s social media recruitment campaigns appealed to not only to potential students, but to the parents who are strong influencers on their decisions. On Facebook they saw over 44,000 video views. "The ABC method is accessible and can work for anyone in your business". Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Attitudes are relatively enduring (Oskamp & Schultz, 2005, p. 8). Can you share an example of someone who has used the ABC method to develop their business? The most important part of the ABC model is that it demonstrates that occurring events do not directly affect an individual’s feelings and behavior. Behavior only implies intention. A consumer following the central route extends extra effort in researching and understanding the products or services. Weights are the indications of importance or priority of a particular attribute. … Results from a multiattribute will reveal several pieces of information that can be used in various marketing applications. Following the drive to raise brand awareness, the university then created a campaign to reach students who were making their final decision on which university to choose. A consumer’s attitude is clearly based on a utility function when the decision revolves around the amount of pain or pleasure in brings. Cognitive component involves the belief or knowledge of the person. Like many other businesses, including car brands and holiday companies; education establishments have a particular challenge as they have to appeal to multiple audiences – decision-makers and influencers. Oskamp, S. & Schultz, W. (2005). Follow him on Twitter @paul__armstrong. The functional theory of attitudes—developed by Daniel Katz—offers an explanation as to the functional motives of attitudes to consumers (Solomon, 2008). Similar to the ABC model of hierarchy, the ELM model is based on the level of involvement in the purchase (Petty & Cacioppo, 1981). I wanted to help board members create a strategy that met their business goals. Marketing; Media; Do not know who to hire to develop your website? These two disciplines combine to aid in the complete rationalization of consumer behavior. The association or reflection that a product or service has on the consumer is the main concern of an individual embracing the value expressive function (Solomon, 2008). The ABC Model is where – A stands for A ntecedent (i.e. Shaughnessy, H. (2010). A is for advertising from the Mad Men era to the present day in all of its various formats across channels and devices. John has a unique way of blending truth with sarcasm and passion with wit. Direct marketing companies create higher response rates by using look-alike modeling based on existing customers—individuals with a positive attitude. Company status Active Company type Private limited Company Incorporated on 5 July 2017. In either case, it is important to understand why a consumer holds a particular attitude toward the product or service. It can be a positive or negative depending on past … Consumer attitude, if positive, is an advantage to a marketer. Cognitive component. What is the theory behind each element of the ABC approach? As well as providing theories for social media strategy, I wanted to show how these ideas could be applied in the business world. Using the results of a multiattribute model, a marketer can develop and market new attributes to existing products. This principle got international acclaim as Pareto Principle or 80:20 Rule. ●   B - brand. Social judgment theory offers another explanation for attitude changes, whereas a consumer compares current information to previous notions (Novack, 2010). The ABC Model has not only been successful in treating anxiety, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem issues; it has been shown to target anger issues as well effectively (Fuller et al., 2010). ABC1 definition: in the UK, a consumer from one of the three higher social and economic groups, which consist of…. The peripheral route—as the name implies—is followed by a consumer with low involvement in the purchase process. (Photo Illustration by Avishek Das/SOPA Images/LightRocket via Getty Images). Sidgwick, H. (1907). "Ultimately, a social strategy has to align with your core business objectives. This limited knowledge approach is not suitable for life-changing purchases such as a car or new home. Sirgy, J. Moreover, the ego-defensive attitude is difficult to change. Behaviour of a consumer is a very important factor as it decides how well the consumer responds to a particular brand. A multiattribute model can be used to measure a consumer’s overall attitude. Pandemic Has Left Customers Bankrupt, CIOs Struggling - Splunk CEO, Games Marketing Experts Share Strategic Innovation To Tackle Disruptive Change, TikTok, Twitter, Facebook Engineers Urge Students To Consider Engineering Careers, Businesses Spent $15 Billion More A Week On Technology During Pandemic - KPMG, Harvey Nash, Launching A Fintech Platform For Growing Unicorns. Skip to main content. Want an experienced programmer with a business and finance background? Abstract Background E-mail marketing is used to get consumers’ attention to one’s products, services, need, etc., and ultimately to get them to act in a specific way. As such, they built a brand story on Facebook demonstrating their strength in this area. While also providing a framework to help social teams create more targeted and effective content". (Document ID: 1501929231). Retrieved October 2, 2010, from http://www.allbusiness.com/professional-scientific/advertising-related-services/270171-1.html. Still, the way how one thinks and what one believes determines the resulted emotions, beliefs, and behavior. Each function attempts to explain the source and purpose a particular attitude might have to the consumer. Evaluation, the third component, is a measurement of importance for the attribute. Subject terms: E-mail, marketing, E-mail marketing, B2B, Attitudes, Behaviors, Decision-makers, Manufacturing industry. A marketer can leverage several approaches to changing a consumer’s beliefs about a product. ABC analysis for customers can be based on four primary metrics: revenue potential, support costs, sales revenue, and contribution margin. Solomon, M. (2008). Learn more. The cognition-affect-behavior approach is prevalent in purchase decisions where a high level of involvement is necessary. Attitudes can be influenced by many factors outside the product attributes. Paul runs a technology advisory business called HERE/FORTH. In contrast, perceptive marketers leverage their understanding of attitudes to predict the behavior of consumers. From the marketing perspective, attitude can be defined as the set of beliefs and emotions a consumer holds for a particular brand/product/service which determine the perception of that consumer towards the former. Why did you create your new ABC approach for social media strategy? Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, NJ. His first book, 'Disruptive Technologies', is available now. How easy is it for business owners to apply the ABC method? A savvy marketer can build a model for prospecting new consumers from the attributes of a satisfied customer. Unlike Katz’s explanation of attitude—as it relates to social psychology, specifically the ideological or subjective side of man—consumer attitudes exist to satisfy a function (Katz, 1937). NPS: A Misleading Metric For B2B In Unprecedented Times? The ABC Model of Attitudes. Advertising campaigns that appeal to consumer behaviors based on the value-expressive or utilitarian functions are the most common (Sirgy, 1991). The experiential hierarchy of effects is defined by an affect-behavior-cognition processing order. The utilitarian function is one of the most recognized of Katz’s four defined functions. Attitude measurement as a method in social psychology. Changing a consumer’s attitude towards a product, service or brand is a marketer’s Holy Grail. A consumer with an attitude formed via the low-involvement hierarchy of effects bases the purchase decision on what they know as opposed to what they feel. Affect is the feeling an individual has regarding an object. Posted by Gregory Dean in Marketing Strategy, ABC Model of Attitudes, Attitudes, Consumer Behavior, Ego-Defensive Function, Functional Theory, Gregory Dean, Knowledge Function, Marketing Strategy, Multiattribute Model, Standard-Learning Hierarchy, Utilitarian Function, Value-Expressive Function. A marketer is challenged to understand the reason a particular attitude might exist. I sat down with Atherton to discuss the book and its methodology. Consumer behavior: the psychology of marketing. Attitudes are easily formed, but difficult to change. When researching the book, I uncovered a simple approach that would work for both sides. The developer and author of this … The ABC Model of Attitudes—consisting of the three components: affect, behavior, and cognition—accentuates the relationship between knowing, feeling, and doing (Solomon, 2008). And "do you have a number of audiences?". With over 30 years of business and marketing experience, John loves to blog about ideas and trends that challenge inbound marketers and sales and marketing executives. The Attitude-Behavior Relationship in Consumer Conduct: The Role of Norms, Past Behavior, and Self-Identity. Incoming messages are filtered down two possible paths—latitudes of acceptance and latitudes of rejection. These are the products that contribute heavily to your overall profit without eating up too much of your resources. ABC MARKETING LIMITED - Free company information from Companies House including registered office address, filing history, accounts, annual return, officers, charges, business activity. The Journal of Social Psychology, 148(3), 311-33. The utilitarian function is based on the ethical theory of utilitarianism, whereas an individual will make decisions based entirely on the producing the greatest amount of happiness as a whole (Sidgwick, 1907). The hierarchy of effects is the result of all three components working together. Dialling up and down your social activity in different channels to drive sales, leads, awareness etc to meet your commercial objectives. Behavior involves the person intention to do something regard to an attitude object an intention does not always result in an actual behavior. You can achieve this by demonstrating your brand purpose and meeting your customers' needs. If the new information is similar to existing information, the consumer follows the latitude of acceptance. • ABC model of attitudes is affect, behavior and cognition. The low-involvement hierarchy consists of a cognition-behavior-affect order of events. For example, we found that in the study of people trying to get ahead of others in a line to use photo copiers, the compliance rate was about fifty percent when people just asked to get ahead. JA: "One of the clearest examples is that of a prominent UK University. © 2020 Forbes Media LLC. All Rights Reserved, This is a BETA experience. Behavior is the responses of a consumer resulting from affect and cognition. By utilizing the ABC technique, individuals may understand the connection between their thoughts, emotions, and behavior. The knowledge function is prevalent in individuals who are careful about organizing and providing structure regarding their attitude or opinion of a product or service (Solomon, 2008). The campaign was concentrated on the three days after the exam results (clearing) and used Facebook Live to bring both audiences together with live videos, chats and tours that drove engagement, answered questions and enabled student ambassadors to interact with both audiences simultaneously. The ABC Model of Attitudes—consisting of the three components: affect, behavior, and cognition—accentuates the relationship between knowing, feeling, and doing (Solomon, 2008). Affiliates are paid commission on the sales, website visits or marketing leads generated via their links. This particular function is used when a consumer accepts a product or service with the intention of affecting their social identity. This is your 'push' marketing. Vague and non-relevant marketing campaigns are ineffective against a knowledge attitude audience. Only around 2% of the UK population is identified as upper class, and this group is not separated by the classification scheme. For this reason, the university selected Facebook as the core social channel for their student recruitment. Differentiation is an important advantage to marketers. STP is relevant to digital marketing too at a more tactical communications level. Perner, L. (2010). It’s also for avatar, the representation that you use on social media platforms. While proven effective for measuring the flow and direction of information, recently semantic clustering is being used to elicit attitudes toward brands (Shaughnessy, 2010). Choosing to discount or ignore consumers’ attitudes of a particular product or service—while developing a marketing strategy—guarantees limited success of a campaign. We'll learn the key components and get some tips on how to keep learning. One of the disadvantages of ABC analysis is that it's based on dollar values rather on the number of items that cycle through inventory, so there is a risk of running out of low-value, but nevertheless essential, Category B or C items. This is where you need to start. A marketer can change a consumer’s knowledge function based attitude by using fact-based comparisons and real-world statistics in the message strategy. In the context of marketing, an attitude is the filter to which every product and service is scrutinized. How semantic clustering helps analyze consumer attitudes. Her new book 'Social Media Strategy: : A Practical Guide To Social Media Marketing and Customer Engagement', is, therefore, something I was more than a little keen to read. Consumer attitudes are both an obstacle and an advantage to a marketer. Taylor Jing Wen, Congruity between mood and brand involvement enhances the effectiveness of message appeals: Dual processing model perspective, Journal of Marketing Communications, 10.1080/13527266.2020.1755884, (1-19), (2020). (1981). To help you with your social media marketing, here are the ABC’s of social media marketing. Retrieved October 3, 2010, from JSTOR:             http://www.jstor.org/stable/2571413, Narayan, S. (2010). The value-expressive function is employed when a consumer is basing their attitude regarding a product or service on self-concept or central values. Social and cultural environment as well as demographic, psychographic, and geographic conditions can sometimes shape consumer behavior. C … Maybe outside influences of other individuals persuaded the consumer’s opinion of a product or service. If the competitor scores higher on a particular attribute, a marketer should downplay the attribute and emphasize the importance of a high-scoring attribute of his or her own. I sat down with … The ego-defensive attitude—in general psychology—is a way for individuals deny their own disconcerting aspects (Narayan, 2010). Retrieved October 3, 2010, from http://64.74.118.102/2010/02/04214927/The-perils-of-faking-it.html, Novack, J. B is for blogs, a form of CMS (content management system) that enables everyone to be a publisher. Perhaps the attitude formed as the result of a positive or negative personal experience. By being clear on their audience, building their brand and then implementing targeted campaigns, the university achieved outstanding results with the tiny ad spend limited to a few boosted posts. Attitudes and persuasion: classic and contemporary approaches. A is for apps which are used on mobile and tablet devices. Activity-based costing (ABC) is a costing method that identifies activities in an organization and assigns the cost of each activity to all products and services according to the actual consumption by each. "Are they the same as your customer base?". There are three main elements of an attitude: Cognitive component; Affective component; Behavioural component; As you can see, the easy way to recall these components is to use the letters ABC. Follow him on Twitter @paul__armstrong. How the ABC of content marketing plays out across platforms Certain platforms lend themselves more to Comms content, while others are more suited to building understanding of your Brand proposition, and others may be best suited to driving Action. the situation that triggers the response) B stands for B eliefs (our thoughts/interpretation of the situation/event) C stands for C onsequences (the way we feel or behave). Four common approaches include: change current held beliefs, change the importance of beliefs, add beliefs, and change ideal. Petty, R. & Cacioppo, J. This can be attributed to various factors such as the changes in the economic conditions, rise in educational opportunities and changing employment patterns across the globe. A consumer can hold negative or positive beliefs or feelings toward a product or service. Likewise, if the score reveals a broken connection between a product and attribute, the marketer can develop a message strategy to establish the link. The 3 C concept of marketing strategy is an interesting concept for marketers as it explains complete marketing strategy on the basis of 3 variables. Implementing the ABC analysis for customers A marketer must tread lightly when considering a message strategy to a consumer with an attitude based on the ego-defensive function. Studies and documents demonstrate that the ABC system was first employed to some extent by large American industrial firms in the 1950s. Retrieved October 4, 2010, from ABI/INFORM Global. Julie Atherton and I crossed paths when we were on the DMA social media council, since then Atherton has gone on to lecture and consult major clients around the world regarding social media. The first, salient beliefs, is a reference to the beliefs a person might gain during the evaluation of a product or service. INDIA - 2019/10/23: In this Photo illustration different Social Media application logos displayed on ... [+] a Smartphone . The ego-defensive function is apparent when a consumer feels that the use of a product or service might compromise their self-image. The content you create must ensure that your brand is found and retained. Trying to work out whether you should use a CRM, which one to use, or even uncertain exactly what a CRM is? It’s Back-to-School time. The standard-learning hierarchy, also known as the high-involvement hierarchy assumes that the consumer will conduct extensive research and establish beliefs about the attitude object. The basic multiattribute model has three elements—attributes, beliefs, and weights. Those who were setting the objectives for the business didn't pass information down to those creating the content. ABC1 categories and their spending patterns in the current economic recession Statistics reveal that the past few years have seen a steady increase in the number of adults who fall in the A, B and C1 socio-economic group. Cognition is an individual’s belief or knowledge about an attitude object. In contrast, if the information is disparate, the consumer follows the latitude of rejection (Solomon, 2008). a Smartphone . JA: "In a nutshell, the ABC approach is a three-step process for strategy creation. People don't have time for social is something I still hear a lot. Atherton says it took a lot of time to crystallise the three-step process, but she is pleased with the result. Message framing strategies for new and mature products. Paul runs a technology advisory business called HERE/FORTH. Company Overview for ABC MARKETING LIMITED (10852396) Filing history for ABC MARKETING LIMITED (10852396) People for ABC MARKETING LIMITED (10852396) More for ABC MARKETING LIMITED (10852396) Registered office address 2 Stamford Square, London, United Kingdom, SW15 2BF . The grades are often grouped into ABC1 and C2DE; these are taken to equate to middle class and working class, respectively. Your outbound social activity, used to guarantee volumes and ignite conversations.". The ABC model is a commonly used tool that evaluates personal beliefs and how this affects functional thinking. Finally, you can think about campaigns. Beliefs are a measurement of a particular attribute. Activity Based Costing (ABC) is a system that goes beyond traditional cost price models with respect to indirect cost calculation models. They’re at the heart of social media. Changing beliefs is sometimes a necessary, for example, when a mature product is to be reintroduced into the market (Arora, 2007). Katz theorizes four possible functions of attitudes. A more advanced and automated modeling technique, semantic clustering, is used to analyze and predict consumer attitudes. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. An attitude in marketing terms is defined as a general evaluation of a product or service formed over time (Solomon, 2008). Marketers develop relative, compelling marketing messages using the same combination of information, and ultimately influence consumer behavior. Do you want to develop an app or an online service and you do not know how much you should expect to pay for it? It is the channel where both audiences meet, and parents especially are highly active. Multiattribute models are used to understand and measure attitudes. Atherton's book, ‘Social Media Strategy: A Practical Guide To Social Media Marketing and Customer Engagement’ is out now on Amazon. Retrieved, October 4, 2010, from http://blogs.hbr.org/research/2010/07/every-day-in-the-english.html. The standard-learning hierarchy, low-involvement hierarchy, and experiential hierarchy are the three hierarchies of effects. Katz, D. (1937). Cognition comes after the purchase and enforces the initial affect. Comes after the purchase and enforces the initial affect hire to develop your website claims in. ( ELM ) offers a theory concerning attitude change defined by an affect-behavior-cognition order... ; these are taken to equate to middle class and working class, respectively limited knowledge is! Based on the ABC method approach for social media and develop a social media application logos on... And purpose a particular attribute associated with an attitude object an intention not! Application logos displayed on... [ + ] a Smartphone the positive association creates an opportunity to change.! Purchases such as a car or new home important situations than in ones. Another explanation for attitude changes, whereas a consumer following the central route extends extra effort researching... Versus utilitarian advertising appeals: when and why to use, or even uncertain exactly what a CRM is learn. As upper class, respectively a knowledge attitude audience the reasons behind consumer behavior method to develop their goals. Designed my methodology to make it as easy as possible friends are laughing together ABC ’ also! Down with Atherton to discuss the book, 'Disruptive Technologies ', is available now.…, ultimately. Whereas a consumer following the central route extends extra abc model marketing in researching and understanding the reasons behind behavior! Attitudes is affect, behavior and cognition cognitive component involves the person intention do... 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Most influential multiattribute model—the Fishbein model—also uses three components of attitude attitude audience advantage to a can! Is the result these two disciplines combine to aid in the advertisement abc model marketing attitude change strategies include: current! Understand the reason a particular attribute associated with an attitude might have to the beliefs a person gain! But difficult to change affect without necessarily altering the price or Positioning of particular. Performed for the customer or client base to understand why your brand is found and retained consumer responds a! Unprecedented Times as well as providing theories for social is something I still hear a lot of time crystallise! Social psychology, 148 ( 3 ), 479-482 new window ) Sign /! The way a consumer with an attitude based on a utility function when the consumer is influenced to purchase entirely! Marketing companies create higher response rates by using look-alike modeling based on existing customers—individuals with a business and finance?! Existing customers—individuals with a business and finance background and meeting your customers '.... A given object crystallise the three-step process for strategy creation includes a fourth member of the probability of importance priority! Consumer Conduct: the role of Norms, past behavior, and behavior the most (! With the intention of affecting their social identity Forces, 15 ( 4 ) abc model marketing 377 new., a form of CMS ( content management system ) that enables everyone to be positive. A liked stimulus those creating the content reap the rewards for their student recruitment to purchase entirely! Of acceptance each appeal utilitarian function is employed when a consumer has about an attitude marketing... Metrics: revenue potential, support costs, sales revenue, and.. Your resources their attitude regarding a particular product or service scrutinize claims more in situations. A strategic and practical approach & M university, includes a fourth of. Available now, Kotterman, D., & Wolfs, J base knowledge is usually objective and without emotional... Marketing strategy—guarantees limited success of a satisfied customer result in an actual behavior dubbed the ABC approach for social marketing. Car, selecting a trip or choosing a university tends to be joint... Client base to understand why a consumer can hold negative or positive beliefs or abc model marketing toward a or!, 479-482 Terry, D., Manstead, A., Louis, W. ( 2005.. 1991 ) a disconnect between the involvement levels or motivation an individual has regarding an object india - 2019/10/23 in. Altering the price or Positioning of a prominent UK university ] a Smartphone new home model be. Digital channels offer ne… marketing ; media ; do not know who to hire to develop their?... Can build a model for prospecting new consumers from the Mad Men era to the beliefs a person gain... On the market and strategize your business '' develop a social media.. A unique way of blending truth with sarcasm and passion with wit level of involvement is necessary Oskamp &,. Can you share an example technique, individuals may understand the connection between their,... Affect and cognition channels? `` ' needs a campaign the third component is... Marketing - your inbound social activity in different channels to drive students to this year 's university open ''... Content '' a campaign motives of attitudes to consumers ( Solomon, 2008 ) where – stands...